Fundamentals session 2: Infections


Session 2

August 31 2015


Here is session two. It is mainly concerned with infections and specifically


Stopping infection in the hospital


Healthcare associated infections

  • five types account for 60% of the reports
    • uti, surgical site, bloodstream, pneumonia.


Everyone is a susceptible host.


Infection control – exit versus entry


Overuse of antibiotics is leading to Drug resistant Microbial strains.

  • these pt’s tend to have longer hospital stays


MRSA: HA = hospital acquired, CA = Community acquired

  • testing upon admission to tell the difference.
  • find the location: nose, wound, and be extra careful with that cite


VRE Vancomycin resistant enterococcus – happens in immunocompromised pts,

  • ie. cancer, old, steroids


Cdiff – inflammation and irritation of the bowel,

  • have to go to the bathroom a lot, distinct smell.

SIRS – systemic inflammatory response syndrome


Standard precaution on all fluids and pts that are considered hazardous

  • This can be helped through consciously creating habits  


mode of transportation

  • direct
  • indirect


There is a specific order of operations to apply and remove PPE


Airborne precautions (droplet of <5um)

  • Measles, VZV, TB
  • Private, negative airflow room
  • precautions: N95 mask
  • Rule out tb and an actual tb patient are treated the same.


Contact Precautions

  • direct contact transmission
  • Accommodations private room
  • precautions, gloves and gowns with their own equipment


Droplet Precautions > 5um

  • Simple mask
  • rubella, pertussis


Levels of cleanliness

  • Asepsis – no pathogens
  • Medical asepsis – “Clean technique”
  • Surgical asepsis  – “sterile technique”


Wash your hands!!!

  • all the time
  • a lot
  • soap and water if visibly soiled
  • C Diff does not die from alcohol gel.


compromise of a sterile package


  • get a new sterile package!
  • start over



sterile technique

  • hands above waist
  • edges are contaminated
  • liquid contaminates sterile field.



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