Class 8: Cancer
Hyperplasia: proliferation of cells that are still organised
dysplasia: proliferation of cells that are becoming disorganized.
situ: in the normal location.
- so if there is dysplasia in situ this means that the cancer is not yet invasive to other tissues.
Proto – oncogene: allows apoptosis to occur.
- oncogene: a protooncogene that has been damaged and can no longer signal apoptosis at the right time or at all.
Tumor suppressor gene:
- T lymphocytes: deal with INtracellular foreign substances
- B lymphocytes: deal with EXtracellular foreign substances
- Immunologic escape: the process where the cancer can avoid our immune system safeguards.
- Oncofetal antigens: in tumor cells as well as fetal cells
- are not well differentiated
mutations in genes:
- Primary cancer related genes: Oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes
- self exams
- prostate – do not run psa on everyone any more no
- ovarian – no general test
- colon – at and after 50
biopsy will allow us to see the differentiation in the cell types
- styles: Needle aspiration, Core or incisional, and excisional
- all of these will give us a tissue sample of the cancer.
Stages – the extent of the disease and how invasive it is
- 0 – situ (precancer, some dysplastic cells)
- 1 – local tumor
- 2 – limited local (lymph nodes)
- 3 – extensive spread
- 4 – metastasis
- T = tumor size T1-T4
- N = spread in the lymph nodes N0 – N3
- M = metastasis 0 or 1
Grades – the differentiation of the cell types
Karnofsky scale 100% is perfect, and 0% is death
ECOG – eastern cooperative oncology group
- 0 full active, 4 completely disabled, 5 death
- Subtotal – remove uterus
- total – and cervix
- total and bilateral salpingo oophorectomy – and fallopian tubes and ovaries
- Radical – and upper vagina, other tissue, and lymph nodes
palliation – comfort and symptom management
drug therapy – the goal is to combine drugs to minimize s/s and maximize the cancer killing effectiveness
- chemo is an adjuvant to surgery (meaning that it is supportive therapy after the surgery to clean up the excess
- only chemo certified RNs can give chemo.
- be careful with waste/spills
- special protocol for extravasation of IV
- Ask when the last dose of chemo was and what was it?
- Potential complications of dxs
- what would I will