Session 12: PTSD, and Neurocognitive disorders
- Having a traumatic event of any kind can lead to PTSD symptoms
- Almost 1 out of 10 people one month after 9/11 had symptoms of PTSD
- In PTSD there are recurring symptoms of the stressor that has occurred.
- The stress needs to be processed or else it will run on a continuous loop that will not allow the person to be free from the stressor.
- Ted talk about PTSD
- Thalamus, amygdala and hippocampus – emotional response to the experience
- Overactive amygdala can cause increased sympathetic response and PTSD symptoms.
- Cortisol – the stress hormone, longer exposure times allow the stress to have a higher reaction in this patient ie. a kindling effect the more stress there is.
- Norepinephrine – high levels in PTSD
- Coping skills are aimed at bringing them back to baseline levels of functioning
- Exposure therapy is allowing the person to deal with the trauma in a safe more manageable place.
- EMDR – is therapy using patterned eye movement thought to mimic REM sleep eye movement and this helps some people separate the trauma from the physical response that is elicited from the trauma memory.
- Medications –
- SSRI – fluoxetine, Paroxetine, Sertraline
- Alpha agonist – Prazosin, Clonidine
- Compassion fatigue – decrease ion compassion over time due to repeated secondary trauma
- Common in healthcare workers
- Adjustment disorder – precipitated by a traumatic or stressful event. Less intense than PTSD
- Acute stress disorder – PTSD symptoms that last for one month only
- Dissociative disorders – commonly occur with a history of trauma. Unconscious defence mechanisms, where the patient dissociates with consciousness. (out of body experience)
- Fugue state – amnestic state of personality
- Dissociative Identity Disorder – presence of more than one personality state. Each personality perceives, relates and thinks in a specific unique way.
Neurocognitive disorders In the Elderly
- Common Mental disorders in the elderly
- Confusion – from withdrawal, illness, dementia, delirium
- s/s to be aware of:
- Short attention, irritable
- Benzodiazepines are not recommended to patients with any confusion s/s because it may exacerbate them.
- In anxiety disorders sleep initiation is an issue, with depression it is sleep fragmentation.
- Confabulation – filling in details of a story that are not true to connect to a scenario that they do not remember.
- Creating stories relating to factual events
- 15% of the elderly commit suicide
- Dementia – impairment of intellectual functioning affecting memory and cognition
- Primary caused by alzheimer’s Disease.
- Anticholinergics have a high chance of a person experiencing dementia
- Can also be very flushed, and have poor secretions.
- Alzheimer’s disease – 4th leading cause of death
- Progressive decrease in cognitive functioning
- Risk Increases with age, head trauma, and lower education level
- Medications –
- Namenda (Memantine – blocks excess glutamate
- Exelon (rivastigmine – Cholinesterase inhibitor
- Aricept (donepezil) – Cholinesterase inhibitor, stops breakdown of Acetylcholine. Fewer side effects then exelon.
Session: 11 Personality Disorders
Cluster A: Odd or eccentric – Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal
- Paranoid – distrusting to the people around them
- Schizoid – detachment from relationships
- Schizotypal – Deficits in social and personal skills as well cognitive distortions and eccentricities.
Cluster B: Dramatic or erratic – Antisocial, borderline, Histrionic,
- Borderline personality disorder – can have self injurious behaviors, lack of sense of self, emotionally unstable.
- Narcissistic personality disorder: (Bernie Madoff) wants to be seen as a hero for people.
- Histrionic personality disorder: needs to be in the center of attention, (housewives series on bravo)
- Antisocial – Ted Bundy, criminal lack of remorse or regard, and can be charming.
Cluster C: Anxious or fearful – Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive compulsive
- Avoidant personality disorder
- Dependent personality disorder
- Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder – different than OCD, rigidity to routine to the extreme.
Somatic and fictitious symptom disorder
Disorders with a base in anxiety that present as real disease processes.
Illness anxiety disorder – always think there is some thing else. Have a lot of tests do to rule out causes but they always think there is something else
Conversion disorder – neurological disorders that results in a deficit of motor or sensory function.
- pseudo seizures , paralysis, blindness, paresthesias, loss of sensation.
Factitious Disorders (formerly munchausen’s disorder)
- Faking symptoms or inflict injury to self for secondary gain.
- They want to be in the role of a sick person
- About 1% of the population
- This disorder “imposed on another” – giving their child a disease to have the child in the role of the sick person.
- Malingering – is to fake an illness for a gain of some sort, personal or otherwise
Session: 10 Eating disorders
Hypothalamus signals hunger and satiation
- Regulation of the person’s appetite
Anorexia nervosa – usually in females ages in 12-30 y.o. And the prevalence is about 1%
- Restrict eating
- Medical complications
- Cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, poor enamel, amenorrhea, constipation,
Bulimia nervosa – more chronic than anorexia. Prevalence ½% in males and three times that in females.
- Cannot control eating or how much you eat.
- Purging, laxatives, enemas, or diuretics
- Purging weekly for at least three months
- Generally normal weight to slightly over weight
- Medical complications: bradycardia, electrolyte imbalances, russell’s sign which is calloused knuckles on the hands, stomach pain, dehydration, and poor dentition.
Binge eating disorder – similar to bulimia but do not purge
- Extreme overeating from feelings of worthless self.
- Genetic component is not proven but is hypothesised
- Serotonin release occurs with eating almost any food. People with anorexia will feel anxious instead when feeling full.
- May start development at a very early age and delay the development of the ego.
- Cognitive-behavioral theory – learned behaviour based on the positive reinforcement for loss of weight.
Obesity – over 30 BMI
- Increases mortality
- Overweight americans are about 65% of the population
- Not classified as an eating disorder
- Contraindicated meds
- Bupropion (wellbutrin) – lowers seizure threshold which increases risk when the patient is already at a high risk.
- Caution psychostimulants
- Meds to use: there are no medications specific for an eating disorder
- Use medications that target anxiety and depression ie. SSRI’s,
- Medication for people with binge eating disorder: reduction of appetite
- Topiramate (topamax)
- Fluoxetine (Prozac)
- Phentermine or topiramate (Osymia) – may have paresthesias, tingling in the periphery.
Session 9: Schizophrenia
About one percent of the population suffers from this disease
Strong genetic link
More common in men
- s/s positive: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized, speech
- s/s negative: not connecting socially, decreased expression
- Less intense than schizophrenia
- 2 or more s/s for more than a month
- This is the diagnosis before full blown schizophrenia
- 2 or more s/s for more than 6 months
- Premorbid phase
- Shy, withdrawn, a- or anti social behaviour
- Prodromal phase
- Acute phase
- Decline in functioning
- Increase in thoughts and behaviour that are overwhelming
- Stabilization phase
- Decrease in symptoms
- Increase socialization
- Needs medication
- Maintenance phase
- Try to get back to previous level of functioning
- Medications may decrease in this phase
- Family support and community is crucial
- Auditory is most common,
- Visual, tactile, olfactory, gustatory (taste)
Positive hallucination are added effects, and negative hallucinations are things that they stop doing like social activities and coping mechanisms
- Reduction of normal cognitive level
- Memory attention, and thinking,
- This could be independent of other cognitive functions.
Alterations in behaviour and catalonia
- Negativism – the person does not react to stimulus even when painful
- excessive motor activity without purpose
Risk factors of schizophrenia
- Stresses in prenatal period – lack of food to starvation, influenza and other infections
- Strong genetic connection
Risk factors for suicide
- Male, not adherent to medications, impulsive, psychosis, and multiple hospitalizations
- First gen: (mostly treats positive s/s) Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine, THiothixene, fluphenazine
- EPS that are severe – dystonia, akathisia
- This can lead to parkinson’s like permanent movements
- Second gen: treat the negative s/s as well.
- Clozapine – great drug, but at risk for agranulocytosis
- Ziprasidone -done – take with meal to increase absorption.
Nicotine – interacts with CYP450 enzyme so that the medication may be need to be reduced if the person smokes les cigarettes per day. clozapine and zyprexa